Sinusitis; cause, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and management

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses. Sinusitis may develop in any of the groups of sinuses. Maxillary, ethmoid, frontal and or sphenoid.

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Sinusitis may be acute (short-lived) or chronic (long-standing). Viral infections like common cold and a variety of bacteria can cause sinusitis.

Signs and symptoms

Acute and chronic sinusitis produce similar symptoms such as tenderness over the affected sinus,

    • headache,
    • toothache,
    • malaise,
    • nasal mucous membrane is swollen and reddish,
    • pus or discharge from the nose


  • X-ray - sinuses appear opaque
  • Computed tomography can determine the extent and severity of the sinusitis
  • Clinical manifestations


The aim of treatment is to improve sinus drainage, control pain and curing the infection

  1. Steam inhalation helps blood vessels in the mucous membrane constrict and improve sinus drainage
  2. Ephedrine nasal spray
  3. Antibiotics such as Amoxiclav/Amoxicillin are given for longer period if it is chronic.
  4. When antibiotics are not effective antrum washout or surgery may be performed to improve sinus drainage

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